JAMB

Physics JAMB Syllable 2024

JAMB SYLLABLE FOR ALL COURSES

JAMB SYLLABLE FOR ALL COURSES

JAMB SYLLABLE FOR PHYSICS. The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination syllabus is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives. In this article.  I will be giving you a complete list of jamb syllables for all courses.

Page Contents

PHYSICS

 

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

 

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Physics is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination.  It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

  • sustain their interest in physics;
  • develop attitude relevant to physics that encourage accuracy, precision and

objectivity;

  • interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts and other theories;
  • demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and concepts.

 

DETAILED SYLLABUS

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

1.         MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS

(a)             Length, area and volume: Metre     rule, Venier calipers   Micrometer

Screw-guage, measuring cylinder.

 

 

 

(b)             Mass

(i)                 unit of mass;

(ii)               use of simple beam balance; (iii) concept of beam balance.

 

 

(c)             Time

(i)                 unit of time;

(ii)               time-measuring devices.

 

(d)             Fundamental physical quantities

 

   

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the units of length, area and volume; ii. use different measuring instruments; iii. determine the lengths, surface areas

and volume of regular and irregular bodies;

 

iv.      identify the unit of mass;

v. use simple beam balance, e.g Buchart’s balance and chemical balance;

vi.      identify the unit of time; vii.            use       different          time-measuring

devices;

 

viii.      relate the fundamental physical quantities to their units;

 

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
(e)             Derived physical quantities and their   units

(i)                 Combinations of fundamental quantities and determination of their units;

 

(f)              Dimensions

(i)                 definition of dimensions

(ii)               simple examples

 

 

 

 

(g)             Limitations of experimental  measurements

(i)                 accuracy of measuring                    instruments;

(ii)               simple estimation of errors; (iii)  significant figures; (iv)  standard form.

 

(h)             Measurement,          position,            distance          and   displacement 

(i)               concept of displacement;

(ii)                distinction between distance and             displacement;

(iii)              concept of position and    coordinates; (iv)  frame of reference.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.      Scalars and Vectors

(i)       definition of scalar and vector quantities;

(ii)    examples of scalar and vector quantities;

(iii)  relative velocity;

(iv)   resolution of vectors into two perpendicular directions including

graphical methods of       solution.

ix.                deduce the units of derived physical quantities;

 

x.                  determine       the       dimensions            of physical quantities; xi.            use the dimensions to determine the units of physical quantities;

xii.              test the homogeneity of an equation;

 

xiii.            determine       the       accuracy            of

measuring instruments;  xiv. estimate simple errors;

xv.       express measurements in standard form.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

 

i.         use strings, meter ruler and engineering calipers, vernier calipers and micrometer, screw guage; ii. note the degree of accuracy; iii.           identify distance travel in a specified direction; iv.             use compass and protractor to locate points/directions;

v.         use Cartesians systems to locate positions in x-y plane; vi.       plot graph and draw inference from the graph.

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

 

i.                    distinguish between scalar and

vector quantities;

ii.                  give examples of scalar and vector              quantities;

iii.                determine the resultant of two or

more vectors;

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Motion

(a)   Types of motion:

translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin and random

 

(b)  Relative motion

 

(c)   Causes of motion

 

(d)  Types of force

 

(i)                    contact

(ii)                  force field

 

(e)   linear motion

(i)                    speed, velocity and acceleration; (ii)   equations of uniformly   accelerated         motion;

(iii)        motion under gravity;

(iv)        distance-time graph and velocity time         graph;

(v)          instantaneous velocity and           acceleration.

 

 

 

(f)    Projectiles:

(i)      calculation of range, maximum height and time of flight from the ground and a height;

(ii)    applications of projectile motion.

 

(g)   Newton’s laws of motion:

(i)           inertia, mass and force;

(ii)        relationship between mass and

acceleration;

(iii)      impulse and momentum;

iv.        determine relative velocity;  v.             resolve vectors into two              perpendicular components; vi.             use graphical methods to solve    vector problems.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to;

 

i.              identify different types of motion;

 

 

 

 

ii.            solve numerical problem on collinear motion;

iii.          identify force as cause of motion;

iv.          identify push and pull as forms of

force;

v.            identify electric and magnetic attractions, gravitational pull as forms of field forces;

 

vi.          differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration;

vii.        deduce   equations         of    uniformly

accelerated  motion;

viii.      solve problems of motion under

gravity;

 

ix.          interpret distance-time   graph   and velocity-time graph;

x.            compute instantaneous velocity and

acceleration;

 

 

xi.          establish expressions for the range, maximum height and time of flight of projectiles;

xii.        solve problems involving projectile motion;

 

xiii.      solve numerical problems involving impulse and momentum;

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
(iv)       force – time graph;

(v)         conservation of linear momentum          (Coefficient of restitution not          necessary).

 

(h)    Motion in a circle:

(i)       angular velocity and angular

acceleration;

(ii)  centripetal and centrifugal forces; (iii) applications.

 

(i) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):

(i)         definition and explanation of simple harmonic motion;

(ii)      examples of systems that execute  S.H.M;

(iii)    period, frequency and amplitude of

S.H.M;

(iv)     velocity and acceleration of S.H.M;

(iii)   simple treatment of energy change in S.H.M;

(iv)    force vibration and resonance (simple treatment).

 

 

4           Gravitational field

(i)         Newton’s law of universal gravitation;

(ii)       gravitational potential;

(iii)     conservative and non-conservative          fields;

(iv)     acceleration due to gravity;

(v)       variation of g on the earth’s surface; (vi)  distinction between mass and weight         escape velocity;

(vii) parking orbit and weightlessness.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

xiv.  interpretation of area under force – time graph;

xv.    interpret Newton’s laws of  motion; xvi. compare inertia, mass and force;

xvii.          deduce the relationship between mass and acceleration;

 

 

 

xviii.        interpret the law of conservation of linear momentum and application;

xix.            establish        expression       for           angular velocity, angular acceleration and centripetal force;

 

 

xx.              solve numerical problems involving motion in a circle;

xxi.            establish the relationship between period and frequency;

xxii.          analyse          the       energy changes occurring during S.H.M; xxiii. identify different types of forced vibration;

xxiv. enumerate              applications           of

resonance.

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.        identify the expression for gravitational force between two bodies;

ii.     apply        Newton’s         law      of      universal  gravitation;

iii.   give examples of conservative and non-       conservative fields;

iv.    deduce the expression for gravitational field   potentials;

v.      identify the causes of variation of g on the earth’s surface;

vi.    differentiate between mass and weight; vii. determine escape velocity.

 

 

 

 

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

5.            Equilibrium of Forces

          (a)  equilibrium of  particles:

(i)   equilibrium of coplanar forces;          (ii)   triangles and polygon of forces; (iii) Lami’s theorem.

 

(b)    principles of moments

(i)       moment of a force;

(ii)    simple treatment and moment of a couple (torgue);

(iii)  applications.

 

 

(c)     conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and nonparallel forces

(i)          resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions;          (ii) resultant and equilibrant.

 

(d)    centre of gravity and stability

(i)          stable, unstable and neutral equilibra.

 

 

6.            (a) Work, Energy and Power

(i)               definition of work, energy and power;

(ii)             forms of energy;

(iii)           conservation of energy;

(iv)           qualitative treatment between different                  forms of energy;

(v)             interpretation of area under the force-         distance curve.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b)    Energy and society

(i)           sources of energy;

(ii)         renewable and non-renewable energy e.g. coal, crude oil etc.;

(iii)       uses of energy;

 

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the conditions for the equilibrium of      coplanar forces to solve problems; ii. use triangle and polygon laws of forces to solve equilibrium problems;

 

 

iii.    use Lami’s theorem to solve problems;

iv.    analyse the principle of moment of a force;

v.      determine moment of a force and couple;

vi.    describe some applications of moment of a force and couple;

vii.  apply the conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies to solve problems;

viii.          resolve forces into two perpendicular        directions; ix. determine the resultant and equilibrant of        forces;

x.  differentiate between stable, unstable and neutral equilibra.

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.        differentiate between work, energy and power;

ii.      compare different forms of energy, giving examples;

iii.    apply the principle of conservation of energy;

iv.    examine the transformation between different forms of energy;

v.      interpret the area under the force – distance curve. vi. solve numerical problems in work, energy and     power.

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.    itemize the sources of energy;

ii. distinguish between renewable and non- renewable energy, examples should be given;

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
(iv)         energy and development;

(v)           energy diversification;

(vi)         environmental impact of energy e.g.

global warming, greenhouse effect and spillage;

(vii)       energy crises;

(viii)     conversion of energy;

(ix)         devices used in energy production.

 

 

(c)            Dams and energy production

 

(i)       location of dams

(ii)     energy production

 

(d)           nuclear energy

 

(e)            solar energy

 

(i)    solar collector;

(ii)  solar panel for energy supply.

       

  

7.              Friction

(i)                 static and dynamic friction;

(ii)              coefficient of limiting friction and its determination;

(iii)            advantages and disadvantages of friction

(iv)             reduction of friction;

(v)               qualitative treatment of viscosity and terminal velocity;        (vi) Stoke’s law.

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.              Simple Machines

(i)                 definition of simple machines;

(ii)              types of machines;

(iii)            mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and           efficiency of machines.

 

 

iii. identify methods of energy transition; iv. explain the importance of energy in the development of the society;

v.         analyze the effect of energy use to the environment;

vi.       identify the impact of energy on the environment;

vii.    identify energy sources that are friendly or hazardous to the environment;

viii.  identify energy uses in their immediate environment;

ix.       suggests ways of safe energy use

 

x.         state          different          forms   of      energy conversion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.    differentiate between static and dynamic        friction; ii.   determine the coefficient of limiting         friction; iii.  compare the advantages and

disadvantages of friction;

iv.    suggest ways by which friction can be reduced;

v.      analyse factors that affect viscosity and terminal velocity;

vi.    apply Stoke’s law.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.         identify     different          types    of       simple machines;

ii.      solve         problems         involving       simple machines.

 

 

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

9.      Elasticity

(i)          elastic limit, yield point, breaking point, Hooke’s law and  Young’s modulus;

(ii)        the spring balance as a device for measuring force;

(iii)      work done per unit volume in springs and elastic strings;

 

 

 

10.  Pressure

     (a)  Atmospheric Pressure

(i)          definition of atmospheric pressure;

(ii)        units of pressure (S.I) units (Pa);

(iii)      measurement of pressure;     (iv)  simple mercury barometer;             aneroid barometer and manometer;    (v)    variation of pressure with height;    (vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter.

 

(b)  Pressure in liquids

(i)        the relationship between pressure, depth and density (P = gh)

(ii)      transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s Principle)

(iii)    application

 

11. Liquids At Rest

(i)        determination of density of solids   and liquids

(ii)      definition of relative density

(iii)    upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid

(iv)    Archimedes’ principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers.

 

 

12.  Temperature and Its Measurement

(i)         concept of temperature

(ii)      thermometric properties

(iii)    calibration of thermometers

(iv)     temperature scales –Celsius and Kelvin. 

(v)       types of thermometers

(vi)     conversion from one scale of temperature to another

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.           interpret force-extension curves;

ii.        interpret Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus of a material;

iii   use spring balance to measure force; iv. determine the work done in spring and elastic strings.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.   recognize the S.I units of pressure (Pa); ii.  identify pressure measuring instruments; iii. relate the variation of pressure to height; iv. use a barometer as an altimeter;

v. determine the relationship between pressure depth and density;

vi apply the principle of transmission of pressure  in liquids to solve problems;

vii. determine and apply the principle of pressure in liquid.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.         distinguish between density and relative density of substances;

ii.      determine the upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid;

iii.    apply Archimedes’ principle and law of      floatation to solve problems.

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.         identify thermometric properties of materials that are used for different thermometers;

ii.       calibrate thermometers;

 

iii.     differentiate between temperature scales

e.g.  Celsius and Kelvin;

 

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

 

 

 

 

13.      Thermal Expansion

        (a) Solids

(i)                 definition and determination of linear,                volume and area expansivities;

(ii)              effects and applications, e.g. expansion in              building strips and railway lines;   (iii) relationship between different          expansivities.

 

(b)  Liquids

(i)                volume expansivity;

(ii)             real and apparent expansivities;

(iii)           determination of volume expansivity;      (iv) anomalous expansion of water.

 

 

14.      Gas Laws

(i)                 Boyle’s law (isothermal process)

 

(ii)              Charle’s law (isobaric process)

(iii)            Pressure law (volumetric process)

 

(iv)             absolute zero of temperature

 

(v)               general gas equation:

PV

(   = constant )

T

 

(vi)             ideal gas equation                e.g. Pv = nRT

(iv) Van der waal gas

 

 

15.      Quantity of Heat

 

(i)                 heat as a form of energy;

(ii)              definition of heat capacity and specific heat  capacity of solids and liquids;

(iii)            determination of heat capacity and specific

 

iv. compare the types of thermometers; vi. convert from one scale of temperature to      another.

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

 

i.         determine linear and volume expansivities;

ii.      assess the effects and applications of  thermal expansivities;

iii.    determine the relationship between different expansivities;

 

iv.     determine volume, apparent, and real      expansivities of liquids;

v.       analyse the anomalous expansion of water.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to: i. interpret the gas laws;

ii.     use expression of these laws to solve numerical problems;

iii.   interpret Van der waal equation for one mole of a real gas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

 

i. differentiate between heat capacity and specific heat capacity;

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
heat capacity of substances by simple methods e.g. method of mixtures and electrical method  and Newton’s law of cooling

 

 

16.  Change of State

(i)           latent heat;

(ii)        specific   latent   heats    of         fusion and vaporization;

(iii)      melting, evaporation and boiling;

(iv)       the influence of pressure and of dissolved substances on boiling and melting points;    (v)  application in  appliances.

 

 

 

17.  Vapours

(i)           unsaturated and saturated vapours;

(ii)        relationship between saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) and boiling;

(iii)      determination of S.V.P by barometer tube method;

(iv)       formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain;

(v)         study of dew point, humidity and relative humidity;

(vi)       hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers.

 

 

 

 

18.  Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory

      (a)   Molecular nature of matter

(i)           atoms and molecules;

(ii)        molecular theory: explanation of Brownian motion, diffusion, surface tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact e.tc;

(iii)      examples and applications.

 

(b)  Kinetic Theory 

(i)       assumptions of the kinetic theory

(ii)     using the theory to explain the pressure

ii. determine heat capacity and specific heat       capacity using simple methods; iii. solve numerical problems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.          differentiate between latent heat and specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;

ii.        differentiate between melting, evaporation and boiling;

iii.      examine the effects of pressure and of dissolved substance on boiling and melting points.

iv.      solve numerical problems.

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.      distinguish between saturated and unsaturated vapours;

ii.   relate saturated vapour pressure to boiling point;

iii. determine S.V.P by barometer tube method;

iv.  differentiate          between           dew       point,  humidity and relative humidity;

vi.        estimate the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers;

vii.      solve numerical problems.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.        differentiate         between           atoms      and molecules;

ii.     use molecular theory to explain Brownian motion , diffusion, surface, tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angle of contact;

iii.   examine the assumptions of kinetic theory;

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, melting, boiling, vapourization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc.

 

 

 

19.        Heat Transfer

(i)           conduction, convection and radiation as  modes of heat transfer;

(ii)        temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux;

(iii)      effect of the nature of the surface on the                energy radiated and absorbed by it;

(iv)       the conductivities of common materials;

(v)         the thermos flask;     (vi)  land and sea breeze;  (vii) engines.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20.        Waves

(a)  Production and Propagation

(i)           wave motion;

(ii)        vibrating systems as source of waves;

(iii)      waves as mode of energy transfer;

(iv)       distinction between particle motion and wave motion;

(v)         relationship between frequency, wavelength and wave velocity (V=f λ);

(vi)       phase difference, wave number and wave  vector;

(vii)    progressive wave equation e.g.

2

Y = A sin vt 

       

           (b) Classification

(i)        types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves;

(ii)      longitudinal and transverse waves;

iv. interpret kinetic theory, the pressure exerted by gases, Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, melting, boiling, vaporization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc.

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.            differentiate between conduction, convection and radiation as modes of heat transfer;

ii.          solve problems on temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux;

iii.        assess the effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it;

iv.        compare the conductivities of common      materials;

v.          relate the component part of the working of the thermos flask;

vi.        differentiate between land and sea breeze;

vii.      analyse the principles of operating internal combustion jet engines, rockets.

 

 

Candidates should be able to: i. interpret wave motion;

ii. identify vibrating systems as sources of waves;

iii  use waves as a mode of energy transfer;

iv   distinguish between particle motion and wave motion;

v.   relate frequency and wave length to wave     velocity;

vi. determine phase difference, wave       number and wave vector;

vii.         use the progressive wave equation to compute basic wave parameters;

viii.       differentiate between mechanical and        electromagnetic waves; ix.   differentiate between longitudinal and         transverse waves;

 

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
           (iii) stationary and progressive waves;            (iv) examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.

 

 

 

(c) Characteristics/Properties

(i)         reflection, refraction, diffraction and                   plane polarization;

(ii)       superposition of waves e.g. interference

(iii)     Beats;

(iv)     Doppler effects (qualitative treatment only).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.  Propagation of Sound Waves

(i)                   the necessity for a material medium;

(ii)                speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;

(iii)              reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation and their applications;

(iv)               disadvantages           of         echoes and

reverberations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.  Characteristics of Sound  Waves

(i)                   noise and musical notes;

(ii)                quality, pitch, intensity and loudness and their application to musical instruments;

(iii)              simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their columns

 

1 T

Fo=  (m/ )

2L

x.                  distinguish between stationary and progressive waves;

xi.                indicate the example of waves generated from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank;

 

xii.             differentiate between reflection,            refraction, diffraction and plane          polarization of waves;

xiii.           analyse the principle of superposition of         waves;

xiv.            solve numerical problems on waves        explain the phenomenon of beat, beat         frequency and uses; xv.  explain Doppler effect of sound and         application

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.        determine the need for a material medium in the  propagation of sound waves;

ii.      compare the speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;

iii.    relate the effects of temperature and pressure to the speed of sound in air;

iv.    solve problem on echoes, reverberation and speed;

v.      compare the disadvantages and        advantages of echoes.

vi.    solve problems on echo, reverberation and speed of sound.

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.      differentiate between noise and musical notes;

ii.   analyse quality, pitch, intensity and loudness of sound notes;

iii. evaluate the application of (ii) above in the construction of musical instruments;

iv.  identify overtones by vibrating stings and air columns;

iv. itemize acoustical examples of resonance; vi. determine the frequencies of notes

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

(iv)   acoustic examples of resonance;

(v)     frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their lengths.

 

 

23.           Light Energy

        (a)  Sources of Light

(i)   natural and artificial sources of light;  (ii)  luminous and non-luminous objects.

(b)  Propagation of light

(i)             speed, frequency and wavelength of light;

(ii)           formation of shadows and eclipse;           (iii)  the pin-hole camera.

24.           Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved Surfaces

(i)             laws of reflection;

(ii)           application of reflection of light;

(iii)         formation of images by plane, concave and                convex mirrors and ray diagrams;     (iv)  use of the mirror formula:

1 1 1

  f u v

 

        (v)   linear magnification.

 

25.           Refraction of Light Through at Plane and

Curved Surfaces

(i)             explanation of refraction in terms of                velocity of light in the media;

(ii)           laws of refraction;

(iii)         definition of refractive index of a medium;  (iv) determination of refractive index of glass          and liquid using Snell’s law;  (v)  real and apparent depth and lateral          displacement;

(vi)  critical angle and total internal reflection.

 

emitted by air columns in open and closed pipes in relation to their  lengths.

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.        compare the natural and artificial sources of  light;

ii.      differentiate between luminous and non

luminous objects;

iii.    relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of light;

iv.    interpret the formation of shadows and eclipses;

v.      solve problems using the principle of operation of a pin-hole camera.

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.       interpret the laws of reflection;

ii.    illustrate the formation of images by plane, concave and convex mirrors;

iii.  apply the mirror formula to solve optical

problems;

iv.   determine the linear magnification;

v.     apply the laws of reflection of light to the working of periscope, kaleidoscope and the sextant.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.   interpret the laws of reflection; ii. determine the refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law;

iii.      determine the refractive index using the       principle of real and apparent depth;

iv.      determine the conditions necessary for total internal reflection;

v.        examine the use of periscope, prism, binoculars, optical fibre;

vi.      apply the principles of total interna reflection to the formation of mirage;

vii.    use of lens formula and ray diagrams to solve optical numerical problems;

l

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
       (b) Glass Prism

       (i) use of the minimum deviation formula:

 

AD

sin 2 

U =

A sin 2 

 

(ii)    type of lenses;

 

(iii)  use of lens formula:

1 1 1

  and Newton’s formular (F2 = ab) f u          v

(iv) magnification.

 

26.     Optical Instruments

(i)       the principles of microscopes, telescopes,              projectors, cameras and the human eye             (physiological details of the eye are not                required);

 

(ii)    power of a lens;

(iii)  angular magnification;

(iv)   near and far points;

(v)     sight defects and their corrections.

 

 

27.     (a) Dispersion of light and colours

(i)       dispersion of white light by a  triangular

Prism;

(ii)    production of pure spectrum;

(iii)  colour mixing by addition and subtraction; (iv)  colour of objects and colour filters; (v)   rainbow.

 

 

(b)Electromagnetic spectrum

        (i) description of sources and uses of various types of radiation.

 

 

 

viii.         determine the magnification of an image;

ix.    calculate the refractive index of a glass prism using minimum deviation formula.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.          apply the principles of operation of optical     instruments to solve problems;

ii.        distinguish between the human eye and the cameras;

iii.      calculate the power of a lens;

iv.      evaluate the angular magnification of optical instruments;

v.        determine the near and far points;  vi. detect sight defects and their corrections.

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.   identify primary colours and obtain      secondary colours by mixing; ii.  understand the formation of rainbow; iii. deduce why objects have colours; iv. relate the expression for gravitational force between two bodies;

v.                  apply   Newton’s         law      of             universal

gravitation;

vi.                analyse colours using colour filters; vii. analyse the electromagnetic spectrum in relation to their wavelengths, sources, detection and uses.

 

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

 

 

28.    Electrostatics

(i)          existence of positive and negative charges in matter;

(ii)       charging a body by friction, contact and induction;

(iii)     electroscope;

(iv)      Coulomb’s inverse square law, electric field and potential;

(v)        electric field intensity and potential  difference;

(vi)      electric discharge and lightning.

 

 

 

 

 

29.    Capacitors

(i)          types and functions of capacitors;

(ii)       parallel plate capacitors;

(iii)     capacitance of a capacitor;

(iv)      the relationship between capacitance, area

separation of plates and medium between               the plates

 

EA

C =     d

 

(v)    capacitors in series and parallel;   (vi)   energy stored in a capacitor.

 

30.  Electric Cells

(i)         simple voltaic cell and its defects;

(ii)      Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry);

(iii)    lead –acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron

(Nife) Lithium lron and Mercury cadmium;     (iv)  maintenance of cells and batteries (detail             treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not             required);

(v) arrangement of cells; (vi) efficiency of a cell.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to: i.    identify charges;

ii.   examine uses of an electroscope; iii.  apply Coulomb’s square law of        electrostatics to solve problems; iv.  deduce expressions for electric field        intensity and potential difference;

v.                  identify electric field flux patterns of        isolated and interacting  charges;

vi.                analyse the distribution of charges on a       conductor and how it is used in lightening conductors.

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.    determine uses of capacitors; ii.   analyse parallel plate capacitors; iii.  determine the capacitance of a        capacitor; iv.  analyse the factors that affect the        capacitance of  a capacitor;

v.   solve problems involving the        arrangement of a capacitor;  vi. determine the energy stored in         capacitors.

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.         identify the defects of the simple voltaic cell and their correction;

ii.      compare different types of cells

including solar cell;

iii.    compare the advantages of lead-acid and

Nikel iron accumulator; iv. solve problems involving series and parallel combination of cells.

 

 

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

 

 

31.      Current Electricity

(i)              electromagnetic force (emf), potential

difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance of a cell and lost Volt;

(ii)           Ohm’s law;

(iii)         measurement of resistance;

(iv)          meter bridge;

(v)            resistance in series and in parallel and their combination;

(vi)          the potentiometer method of measuring emf, current and internal resistance of a cell.

(i)  electrical networks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32.      Electrical Energy and Power

(i)              concepts of electrical energy and power;

(ii)           commercial unit of electric energy and power;

(iii)         electric power transmission

(v) heating effects of    electric current; (vi) electrical wiring of houses; (vii) use of fuses.

 

 

 

 

33.      Magnets and Magnetic Fields

(i)              natural and artificial magnets;

(ii)           magnetic properties of soft iron and steel;

(iii)         methods            of         making   magnets           and demagnetization;

(iv)          concept of magnetic field;

(v)            magnetic field of a permanent magnet;

(vi)          magnetic field round a straight current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid;

(vii)       properties of the earth’s magnetic field;

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.     differentiate between emf, p.d., current and internal resistant of a cell;

ii.   apply Ohm’s law to solve problems; iii. use metre bridge to calculate resistance; iv. compute effective total resistance of both

parallel and series arrangement of  resistors;

v.      determine the resistivity and the conductivity of a conductor;

vi.    measure emf. current and  internal resistance of a cell using the potentiometer;

vii. identify     the       advantages      of      the potentiometer;

viii.         apply Kirchoff’s law in electrical networks.

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.            apply the expressions of electrical energy and power to solve problems;

ii.          analyse how power is transmitted from the power station to the consumer;

iii.        identify the heating effects of current and its uses;

iv.        identify the advantages of parallel         arrangement over series;

v.          determine the fuse rating.

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.        give examples of natural and artificial magnets;

ii.     differentiate between the magnetic properties of soft iron and steel;

iii.   identify the various methods of making magnets and demagnetizing magnets;

iv.    describe how to keep a magnet from losing its magnetism;

v.      determine the flux pattern exhibited when two magnets  are placed together pole to

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
north and south poles, magnetic meridian

and angle of dip and declination;

(viii)  flux and flux density;

(ix)       variation of magnetic field intensity over  the earth’s surface

(x)         applications: earth’s magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34.      Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field

(i)                 quantitative treatment of force between

two parallel current-carrying conductors;

(ii)              force on a charge moving in a magnetic                  field;

(iii)            the d. c. motor;

(iv)             electromagnets;

(v)               carbon microphone;

(vi)             moving coil and moving iron instruments;

(vii)          conversion of galvanometers to ammeters    and voltmeter using shunts and multipliers;

(viii)        sensitivity of a galvanometer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35.      (a) Electromagnetic Induction

(i)                 Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic                induction;

(ii)              factors affecting induced emf;      (iii)   Lenz’s law as an illustration of the                 principle of conservation of energy;

pole;

vi.    determine the flux of a current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid including the polarity of the solenoid;

vii. determine the flux pattern of a magnet placed in the earth’s magnetic fields;

viii.           identify the magnetic elements of the earth’s flux;

ix.    determine the variation of earth’s magnetic field on the earth’s surface;

x.      examine the applications of the earth’s magnetic field.

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.  determine the direction of force on a current carrying conductor using

Fleming’s left-hand rule; ii.  interpret the attractive and repulsive forces between two parallel currentcarrying conductors using diagrams;

iii.    determine the relationship between the force, magnetic field strength, velocity and the angle through which the charge enters the field;

iv.    interpret the working of the d. c. motor;

v.      analyse the principle of electromagnets and give examples of its application;

vi.    compare moving iron and moving coil       instruments;

vii.  convert a galvanometer into an ammeter or a voltmeter;

viii.           identify the factors affecting the sensitivity of a galvanometer.

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.      interpret the laws of electromagnetic induction;

ii.    identify factors affecting induced emf; iii. recognize how Lenz’s law illustrates the       principle of conservation of energy;

 

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
     (iv)  a.c. and d.c generators;      (v)   transformers;

(vi)  the induction coil.

 

      (b)  Inductance

(i)       explanation of inductance;

(ii)    unit of inductance;

(iii)  energy stored in an inductor:

EL

 

(iv)   application/uses of inductors.

 

 

  (c)   Eddy Current 

(i)      reduction of eddy current

(ii)    applications of eddy current

 

 

 

 

 

 

36.  Simple A. C. Circuits

(i)               explanation of a.c. current and voltage;

(ii)             peak and r.m.s. values;

(iii)           a.c. source connected to a resistor;

(iv)           a.c source connected to a capacitor- capacitive reactance;

(v)             a.c source connected to an inductor inductive reactance;

(vi)           series R-L-C circuits;

(vii)         vector diagram, phase angle and power factor;

(viii)       resistance and impedance;

(ix)           effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits;

(x)             resonance and resonance frequency:

1

F0 =

2 LC

 

 

 

 

 

 

iv.                interpret the diagrammatic set up of A.

C. generators;

v.                  identify the types of transformer; vi. examine principles of operation of transformers;

vii. assess the functions of an induction coil; viii. draw some conclusions from the principles of operation of an induction coil;

ix.  interpret the inductance of an inductor; x. recognize units of inductance;

xi.    calculate the effective total inductance in series and parallel arrangement;

xii. deduce the expression for the energy stored in an inductor;

xiii.           examine the applications of inductors; xiv. describe the method by which eddy current losses can be reduced;

xv. determine ways by which eddy currents can be used.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.  identify a.c. current and d.c. voltage; ii. differentiate between the peak and r.m.s. values of a.c.;

iii.   determine the phase difference between current and voltage;

iv.    interpret series R-L-C circuits; v.  analyse vector diagrams;

vi.       calculate the effective voltage, reactance and impedance;

vii.    recognize the condition by which the circuit is at resonance;

viii.  determine the resonant frequency of

R-L-C arrangement; ix. determine the instantaneous power, average power and the power factor in a. c. circuits.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

37.  Conduction of Electricity  Through

(a)   liquids

   

(i)         electrolytes and non-electrolyte;

(ii)      concept of electrolysis;

(iii)    Faraday’s laws of electrolysis;

(iv)     application of electrolysis, e.g. electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.

 

 

(b)  gases

(i)    discharge through gases  (qualitative treatment  only);

(ii)  application of conduction of electricity through gases;

 

 

38.  Elementary Modern Physics

(i)                 models of the atom and their limitations;

(ii)              elementary structure of the atom;

(iii)            energy levels and spectra;

(iv)             thermionic and photoelectric emissions;

(v)               Einstein’s equation and stopping potential       (vi)  applications of thermionic emissions and                photoelectric effects;

(vii)    simple method of production of x-rays;

(viii)  properties and applications of alpha, beta and  gamma rays;

(ix)      half-life and decay constant;

(x)        simple ideas of production of energy by fusion and  fission;

(xi)      binding energy, mass defect and Einstein’s

Energy equation

 

[∆E = ∆Mc2]

 

(xii)    wave-particle paradox (duality of matter);    (xiii)  electron diffraction;    (xiv) the uncertainty principle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i. distinguish between electrolytes and non-    electrolytes; ii. analyse the processes of electrolysis; iii. apply Faraday’s laws of electrolysis to solve problems;

 

 

 

 

iv.    analyse discharge through gases;

v.      determine some applications/uses of conduction of electricity through gases.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.        identify the models of the atom and write their limitations;

ii.      describe elementary structure of the atom;

iii.    differentiate between the energy levels and spectra of atoms;

iv.    compare thermionic emission and photoelectric emission;

v.      apply Einstein’s equation to solve problems of  photoelectric effect;

vi.    calculate the stopping potential; vii. relate some application of thermionic emission and photoelectric effects;

viii. interpret the process involved in the         production of x-rays;

ix  identify some properties and applications of  x-rays;

x.                  analyse elementary radioactivity;

xi.                distinguish between stable and unstable          nuclei;

xii.              identify isotopes of an element;  xiii.  compare the properties of alpha, beta and gamma rays;

xiv.           relate half-life and decay constant of a         radioactive element;

xv.             determine the binding energy, mass defect and Einstein’s energy equation;

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

39.  Introductory Electronics

(i)           distinction between metals, semiconductors and insulators (elementary knowledge of band gap is required);

(ii)        intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;

(iii)      uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification;

(iv)       n-type and p-type semiconductors;

(v)         elementary knowledge of diodes and transistors.

 

xvi. analyse wave particle duality; xvii. solve some numerical problems based on the uncertainty principle and wave – particle duality.

 

 

 

Candidates should be able to:

i.        differentiate between conductors, semi-        conductors and insulators;

ii.      distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;

iii.    distinguish between electron and hole carriers;

iv.    distinguish between n-type and p-type      semiconductor;

v.      analyse diodes and transistor  vi. relate diodes to rectification and transistor to amplification.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

 

 

Ike, E.E. (2014). Essential Principles of Physics, Jos ENIC Publishers.

 

Ike, E.E. (2014). Numerical Problems and Solutions in Physics, Jos: ENIC Publishers.

 

Nelson, M. (1977). Fundamentals of Physics, Great Britain: Hart Davis Education.

 

Nelson, M. and Parker … (1989). Advanced Level Physics, (Sixth Edition): Heinemann.

 

Okeke, P.N. and Anyakoha, M.W. (2000). Senior Secondary School Physics, Lagos: Pacific Printers.

 

Olumuyiwa, A. and Ogunkoya, O. O. (1992). Comprehensive Certificate Physics, Ibadan: University Press Plc.

For more information visit www.cafegist.com.ng

 

 

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